Pepper is one of the most popular crops for growing in a greenhouse and in an open area. Pepper seedlings grow well even under the most ideal conditions. Treats unpretentious to environment and care of plants. In a cold climate it is better to grow pepper only in greenhouses. They can create the most suitable conditions for plant growth, and, as a consequence, to obtain a generous harvest. In such a shelter the seedlings are not afraid of the wind, drafts and rains. Frequent manifestation of such weather phenomena can destroy sprouts.
Pepper likes moist soil, and in an open area it is very difficult to achieve this. It is easiest to maintain moisture in greenhouses. In some northern regions of Russia to grow peppers in the open ground, in general, is contraindicated.
Assessing the benefits of growing peppers in greenhouses, questions arise: how to prepare the pepper for seedlings for the greenhouse, how to prepare the soil for planting, how to properly care for the seedlings when they should be planted. Let us consider in more detail each of them.
Sowing on seedlings
As always, the cultivation of any vegetable culture begins with the sowing of seeds. Sowing pepper should start in mid-February. However, due to the short daylight, you will need to use additional lighting (special fitolamp). If you have a good and warm greenhouse, then you can start sowing earlier, and then in early April, the seedlings can be transplanted.
To sprout faster, it is necessary to soak the seeds in water or a special solution. For the first case, put the seeds in cheesecloth, and immerse them in hot water (no more than 50 ° C) for 15 minutes. Next, put the gauze with seeds in the freezer for 24 hours. But to save time, you can simply soak the seeds in a special solution ("Energen", "Zircon", etc.) for 30 minutes. Such procedures will make the plant strong and help you grow faster.
Some for some reason believe that the pepper can not be pickled, because the leaves can easily come off, and then they will recover for a long time. But still, most gardeners are of the opinion that the pick is simply necessary for the root system to develop properly. In order not to risk, it is better to immediately sow the seeds in pots of about half a liter. In each tank, you can put 3 seeds, keeping a distance of 2 centimeters.Tip! Moisten the soil before sowing. But this should be done in moderation, it is better not to use abundant watering, but to spray the soil so that it remains loose.
Seeds are placed at a depth of three to four centimeters. Using a spoon, compact the soil and spread the seeds, and sprinkle it on top with dry soil, making sure that the layer does not exceed 4 cm. And again slightly compact the soil. Cover the cups with plastic wrap and place in a warm place before germination. Already after a week the first shoots should appear. If the soil temperature is less than 27 ° C, the peppers will sprout later. You must also ensure that the temperature does not exceed forty degrees, otherwise the seedlings will die.
It is necessary to place containers with seedlings on those window sills on which the most sunshine falls. If this is not possible, you can arrange a great place for seedlings in the greenhouse. There you can build special shelves with shelves for containers. They will not take up much space, but this will save you time and effort. After all, the greenhouse already has all the necessary devices for the care of plants, watering and lighting. And also it will not be necessary to carry seedlings into the greenhouse for disembarkation, since it will already be in place.Important! The rack must be made of durable materials so that it can support the weight of the pots, and also served you for many years.
In addition, please note that there is a high humidity in the greenhouse, and this may contribute to the destruction of the rack. So, choose waterproof materials.
If you decide to plant seeds in a greenhouse, then you need to create appropriate conditions for their growth and development. The room needs to be ventilated and the soil is well warmed up, because the pepper loves heat, and so it will grow much faster.
You must also do the following:
- wash and disinfect peppers;
- warm the room and the soil, and further maintain a stable temperature;
- prepare the necessary tools and fixtures.
The success of growing peppers largely depends on the quality of the soil. To seedlings fully grown and developed, you need to take a responsible approach to the selection and preparation of the soil.
Quality soil should have the following characteristics:
- The soil should be fertile, clayey for these purposes is not suitable.
- The soil should not be too dense. Choose a soil with a loose texture.
- It is unacceptable content in it of the larvae and remnants of the root system of other plants and weeds.
- The soil should be moderately wet.
This soil can be prepared by yourself or buy in the store. If you decide to independently prepare the soil, you will need large dishes and the following components: humus, garden soil and sand. All this needs to be mixed and passed through a fine sieve, it will saturate the soil with oxygen. The ideal soil for growing seedlings is ready. To disinfect the soil from fungi and bacteria, you should warm the soil in a water bath. Next, we give it to restore its structure, dry out a bit and you can start planting seeds.
Important! To improve the quality of the soil, you can use other additives. For example, hydrogel, vermiculite, etc.
Preparing a seedling growing container
For germination of seeds use a variety of containers. Some gardeners prefer boxes and cassettes, others - cups. To select the desired dishes, you should decide whether you will make a pick or not. Pepper dive is optional, so you can safely sow the seeds in the boxes, and then immediately transplant from there to the ground. Also, if you do not have time for picking, you can plant seeds in special peat cups or tablets. This will greatly facilitate transplanting seedlings.
You can start feeding seedlings of pepper after at least three full leaves are formed on the seedling. Alternatively, for this purpose, use the following mixture:
- superphosphate - 125 grams;
- potassium salt - 30 grams;
- urea - 50 grams;
- water - 10 liters.
All components are mixed and watered with a solution of seedlings. After this, it is necessary to water the sprouts with ordinary water. After the appearance of 3-5 sheets, seedlings are advised to additionally highlight (every day for 12 hours).Tip! Choose to highlight the blue or red light. They most positively affect the seedlings.
The following feeding must be carried out after the appearance of four sheets. And when there are 7-9 true leaves on the stem, it means that the process of flower formation has begun. During this period, seedlings are particularly in need of water. Several times during the cultivation of pepper will need to pour the soil in the tank.
Hardening pepper seedlings
The hardening of pepper for the greenhouse is very important at this stage of development. Especially if you are going to grow it in the open field. After all, if you transplant pepper without prior preparation, it simply will not withstand temperature changes. Delicate tops of plants can burn in the sun, and this will delay the growth of seedlings for a long time.
Quenching should begin 2 weeks before disembarkation. It should be gradually accustomed to changes in temperature during the day and at night, as well as to the sun and wind. To do this, plants are carried out on the balcony or open windows. Begin with 15-20 minutes, and every day increase the time. Before the landing you can leave the seedlings for the night on the balcony.
When to plant seedlings
You can start planting seedlings in the greenhouse in mid-May. By that time, the soil should warm up well, which is very important for such a heat-loving plant. The temperature of the soil should not be less than +15 ° C, if it is even a few degrees lower, the pepper will noticeably lag behind in growth. By the time of transplantation at least 12-13 leaves should form on the stem. The height of the seedlings about 25 centimeters.Tip! It is important to plant the seedlings of pepper in time, until the fruits appear on it. Indeed, in a small capacity, they will not be able to fully develop, and make the plant exhausted and depleted.
If everything is already prepared for planting, and the seedlings themselves are fully ripe, then you can begin transplanting. Consider how to do this so as not to harm the plant.
Planting seedlings in the greenhouse
Planting pepper seedlings will not be difficult, even for inexperienced gardeners. To easily get the seedlings out of the cups, you need to thoroughly water the plants and allow the soil to completely soak. Next, carefully remove the shoots from the tank and lay out in the wells. They should not be very deep, because the root of the pepper is superficial and does not go deep into the ground.Important! If you deeply deepen the root of the pepper, it can contribute to the development of diseases of the root system, for example, root neck rot.
Additionally, fertilizer can be applied to each well to make the soil more fertile. For these purposes, use humus with admixtures of mineral fertilizers.
Some features of the landing technology depend on the type of pepper. Tall and undersized varieties are planted at different distances from one another. The distance between rows of tall peppers should be about 50 centimeters, and between the peppers themselves - up to 40 centimeters. This distance will allow spreading bushes to fully grow. But low-growing bushes can be planted more densely. About 30 centimeters are left between the plants, and 40-50 centimeters between the rows. It is imperative to keep this distance so that the pepper does not prevent the sun from reaching its “neighbors”. This can result in stretching the sprouts, yellowing and falling leaves.
After making fertilizer, you need to pour water into the hole, and gently, holding the pepper, cover the soil. Further, the soil around the seedlings slightly compacted and mulched with peat. For the first time after planting, pepper should be covered on top of the film. You can open the plants after they are fully rooted and take root in a new place.Tip! Pepper seedlings should be planted in the evening, when solar radiation is weak.
Frequent changes in weather conditions may unexpectedly affect pepper seedlings. After all, this culture is considered one of the most capricious. Pepper needs a good and frequent watering, and also loves heat. It is not difficult to create such conditions in a greenhouse, however, it is impossible to protect the plant completely from external factors. Only in the southern regions pepper grows smoothly and ripens quickly. In the northern parts of the country, this process must be constantly stimulated with fertilizers. In such regions, it is not advisable to plant peppers in open ground; therefore, gardeners prefer film shelters and greenhouses.
Neighborhood with other cultures, as well as its predecessors, is of great importance for pepper seedlings.Attention! Pepper grows well in the same greenhouse with tomatoes and other members of the family of the nightshade.
This neighborhood has a positive effect on both plants. But together with cucumbers, pepper is better not to plant.
The following rules will help grow excellent peppers with high yields:
- It is necessary to water the soil plentifully, using special sprays of water. It is important that she irrigates the entire plant. A small amount of water can make red burns on sheets. It is not necessary to water the pepper very often;
- it is necessary to maintain a stable temperature in the greenhouse, the plant will slow down in growth from sudden changes;
- feed must be frequent and regular. About once or twice a week is enough for the pepper to get the necessary micronutrients;
- to obtain sufficient amount of solar radiation, it is necessary to place greenhouses in open areas, without tall trees and buildings;
- The soil can be loosened, but this should be done very carefully, because pepper has a superficial root system, which is very easy to touch. To keep the soil loose and well retain moisture, mulch the soil. To do this, you can use ordinary leaves or hay (straw). The addition of special loosening additives to the soil is also practiced;
- conducts a constant thorough examination for the presence of spider mites, which is most often found in greenhouses. Stock up drugs to combat this pest;
- in the period of the appearance of the first buds, on each bush should remove one lower inflorescence. This will contribute to the good development of pepper. It is also necessary to remove all the lower leaves before the first fork of the stems.
That's all the requirements for the successful cultivation of pepper in the greenhouse. At first glance, they may seem complicated. But many gardeners argue that the result is worth the effort and time spent. With this care, you get a very generous harvest. And having tried to grow a delicious homemade pepper, you are unlikely to want to buy it in the store. After all, no one knows where and how it was grown. And homemade vegetables are always grown conscientiously.
ReviewsEvgenia, 54 years old, Astrakhan. I have not always managed to grow good peppers. Only over the years I learned all the subtleties of this process. In fact, everything is not as difficult as it seems, the main thing is to grow it in the greenhouse. You can, of course, in the open field, but then you have to try hard to get a good harvest. Planted pepper will have to be watered very often to maintain the necessary humidity. In a greenhouse, everything is simpler, the soil dries out so quickly under the scorching sun, and the seedlings develop as it should.
Nadezhda, 39 years old, Voronezh. We have been growing peppers for several years, and every time I’m learning something new. I noticed that the seedlings should always be kept on the sunny side. Therefore, I carry it from one window to another when the sun begins to set. Otherwise, sprouts stretch out and slow down growth. Also, pepper is very selective in the neighborhood. It grows well near potatoes, tomatoes, eggplants, but not very close to cucumbers. But observing all these subtleties, you can get a great harvest of pepper.